The program has been running since the mid-1970s, and seeks to develop LNG and hydrogen variants of the Tu-204 and Tu-334 passenger aircraft, and also the Tu-330 cargo aircraft. Download the Report It is hard to know sometimes whether natural gas is in a golden age or a dark age. The gas usually dissipates readily outdoors, but can sometimes collect in dangerous quantities if flow rates are high enough. North America and Europe are major consumers. The CPUC also regulates independent storage operators Lodi Gas …  It is a potent greenhouse gas itself when released into the atmosphere, and creates carbon dioxide during oxidation.  The energy efficiency is generally equal to that of gasoline engines, but lower compared with modern diesel engines. Survey on Methane Management The UNECE Secretariat in consultation with the secretariats of the International Gas Union, the World Coal Association and the World Petroleum Council and other industry experts, has prepared a survey of how … Most of the rest is used in the residential and services sectors, mainly for heat in buildings.  The energy that the plants originally obtained from the sun is stored in the form of chemical bonds in the gas. The large volumes produced could not be utilized until relatively expensive pipeline and storage facilities were constructed to deliver the gas to consumer markets. Early shale gas wells depended on natural fractures through which gas flowed; almost all shale gas wells today require fractures artificially created by hydraulic fracturing. Biogas can also be produced by separating organic materials from waste that otherwise goes to landfills. The Future of Natural Gas. With Gazprom, Russia is frequently the world's largest natural gas extractor. A regulated natural gas utility serving communities across Minnesota. Long term natural gas distribution contracts are signed in cubic meters, and LNG contracts are in metric tonnes. Natural gas consumption increased by 78 billion cubic metres (bcm), or 2%, well below the exceptional growth seen in 2018 (5.3%). , The natural gas extraction workforce face unique health and safety challenges and is recognized by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as a priority industry sector in the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) to identify and provide intervention strategies regarding occupational health and safety issues.  In much of the developed world it is supplied through pipes to homes, where it is used for many purposes including ranges and ovens, gas-heated clothes dryers, heating/cooling, and central heating. Domestic appliances, furnaces, and boilers use low pressure, usually 6 to 7 inches of water (6" to 7" WC), which is about 0.25 psig. Huge quantities of natural gas (primarily methane) exist in the form of hydrates under sediment on offshore continental shelves and on land in arctic regions that experience permafrost, such as those in Siberia. The Natural Gas Research Programme, launched in 2003, has become one of the foremost sources of independent academic research on natural gas. Pressures up to 4 MPa (about 40 times atmospheric pressure) will yield greater storage capacity. Sand and other particles are added to the water as a proppant to keep the fractures in the rock open, thus enabling the gas to flow into the casing and then to the surface. Muhyiddin said governments, in the design and implementation of policies, played a crucial role in shaping such opportunities. The Peoples Gas pipeline replacement program, launched in 2011, will take 20 years and billions of dollars to finish, but the transformation to renewable energy could make it obsolete. , Gas prices for end users vary greatly across the EU. As demand for natural gas increases, the company’s strong position makes this stock a …  Sea transport using CNG carrier ships that are now under development may be competitive with LNG transport in specific conditions. By 2040, world population is expected to reach 9.2 billion people, up from 7.4 billion today. Depending on the current market price for jet fuel and LNG, fuel for an LNG-powered aircraft could cost 5,000 rubles (US$100) less per tonne, roughly 60%, with considerable reductions to carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide emissions. This dropping cost of renewables, the urgency of states, counties and cities to get to zero emissions and the assumption by the natural gas industry that it is only going to expand is building toward a reckoning.  The production of shale gas in the United States has been described as a "shale gas revolution" and as "one of the landmark events in the 21st century. After a brief drop, withdrawals increased nearly every year since 2006 (owing to the shale gas boom), with 2017 production at 33.4 trillion cubic feet and 2019 production at 40.7 trillion cubic feet.  A single European energy market, one of the key objectives of the EU, should level the prices of gas in all EU member states. This is caused by odor masking, when one odorant overpowers the sensation of another. F–T produces a synthetic crude that can be further refined into finished products, while MTG can produce synthetic gasoline from natural gas. , The Main Karoo basin of South Africa has been identified as a possible shale gas resource, with early estimates of reserves of 0.4-11x109 m3 of shale gas. Conserve & Save Tips to help you save on energy and water at your home Outage Map Service outages for water, natural gas, steam and chilled water Payment Locations If you prefer to pay your bill in … Natural gas was first used by the Chinese in about 500 BC (possibly even 1000 BC). It reached 24.1 trillion cubic feet per year in 1973, followed by a decline, and reached 24.5 trillion cubic feet in 2001. The world's largest gas field is the offshore South Pars / North Dome Gas-Condensate field, shared between Iran and Qatar. The processed natural gas may then be used for residential, commercial and industrial uses. Between 2014 and 2040 global GDP will more than double. [verification needed][full citation needed] Efforts around the world to reduce the use of coal has led some regions to switch to natural gas. Moreover, it would help to resolve supply and global warming issues, as well as strengthen relations with other Mediterranean countries and foster investments in the region. The high pressure water breaks up or "fracks" the rock, which releases gas from the rock formation. Biogenic gas is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs, landfills, and shallow sediments. We continually invest in upgrading our system so we can be the nation’s safest natural gas provider. , As of mid-2020, natural gas production in the US has peaked three times, with current levels exceeding both previous peaks. Distribution infrastructure and meters almost always meter volume (cubic foot or cubic meter). Natural gas is often praised as a clean energy alternative.  According to an updated version of the Special Report on Emissions Scenario by 2030, natural gas would be the source of 11 billion tons a year because demand is increasing 1.9% per year. The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) regulates natural gas utility service for approximately 10.8 million customers that receive natural gas from Pacific Gas and Electric (PG& E), Southern California Gas (SoCalGas), San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG& E), Southwest Gas, and several smaller natural gas utilities. Between 2014 and 2040 global GDP will more than double. Natural gas heating systems may cause carbon monoxide poisoning if unvented or poorly vented. In 2007, a price of $7 per 1000 cubic feet ($0.25/m3) was typical in the United States. STG+ can produce drop-in gasoline, diesel, jet fuel and aromatic chemicals directly from natural gas via a single-loop process. Natural gas is abundant and cheap, which is a concern for natural gas production companies. Until the early part of the 20th century, most natural gas associated with oil was either simply released or burned off at oil fields. CNG is a cleaner and also cheaper alternative to other automobile fuels such as gasoline (petrol). These may include the maximum allowable concentration of CO2, H2S and H2O. The oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane leads to ethylene which can be converted forther to ethylene epoxide, ethylene glycol, acetaldehyde or other olefins. LNG carriers transport liquefied natural gas (LNG) across oceans, while tank trucks can carry liquefied or compressed natural gas (CNG) over shorter distances. The LNG and LPG is transported by specialized transport ships, as the gas is liquified at cryogenic temperatures. Unprocessed, or raw, natural gas is one of the main primary energy sources in the world, making up roughly 1/5 of the world's primary energy. Natural gas extracted from oil wells is called casinghead gas (whether or not truly produced up the annulus and through a casinghead outlet) or associated gas. The energy company indicated that it has unearthed a "supergiant" gas field in the Mediterranean Sea covering about 40 square miles (100 km2). Natural gas pipelines are impractical across oceans, since the gas needs to be cooled down and compressed, as the friction in the pipeline causes the gas to heat up. , Natural gas can be "associated" (found in oil fields), or "non-associated" (isolated in natural gas fields), and is also found in coal beds (as coalbed methane). There is some disagreement on which country has the largest proven gas reserves. When methane-rich gases are produced by the anaerobic decay of organic matter (biomass), these are referred to as biogas (or natural biogas). In these cases, the people inside tend to have minor to moderate injuries. , Extraction of natural gas (or oil) leads to decrease in pressure in the reservoir. Shell Prelude is due to start production 2017. This bullish withdrawal, coupled with slightly favorable weather … Many gas-bearing formations also contain water, which will flow up the wellbore to the surface along with the gas, in both hydraulically fractured and non-hydraulically fractured wells. The gas can be vented to the atmosphere, flared or burned to produce electricity or heat. Chojna, J., Losoncz, M., & Suni, P. (2013, November). In the US compressed natural gas (CNG) is available in some rural areas as an alternative to less expensive and more abundant LPG (liquefied petroleum gas), the dominant source of rural gas. "Frackonomics: Some Economics of Hydraulic Fracturing." Gas venting and production flaring are still practised in modern times, but efforts are ongoing around the world to retire them, and to replace them with other commercially viable and useful alternatives.  The residential price varies from 50% to 300% more than the wholesale price. As natural gas is transported through a system of pipelines, 92 percent is delivered as energy after transmission, … The mining and consumption of natural gas is a major and growing driver of climate change. Another 22 deaths were attributed to appliances running on liquified petroleum gas, and 17 deaths on gas of unspecified type. In the 19th century, natural gas was primarily obtained as a by-product of producing oil. Myhre, G., D. Shindell, F.-M. Bréon, W. Collins, J. Fuglestvedt, J. Huang, D. Koch, J.-F. Lamarque, D. Lee, B. Mendoza, T. Nakajima, A. Robock, G. Stephens, T. Takemura and H. Zhang (2013). Situations in which an odorant that is added to natural gas can be detected by analytical instrumentation, but cannot be properly detected by an observer with a normal sense of smell, have occurred in the natural gas industry. In regions with a high natural gas demand (such as the US), pipelines are constructed when it is economically feasible to transport gas from a wellsite to an end consumer. Gasoline/petrol vehicles converted to run on natural gas suffer because of the low compression ratio of their engines, resulting in a cropping of delivered power while running on natural gas (10–15%). As of 2011, the industry is conducting research on the causes of odor masking.. In 2011, natural gas furnaces, space heaters, water heaters and stoves were blamed for 11 carbon monoxide deaths in the US. 6 Charts That Show The Future of Energy Is In Natural Gas. Gazprom supplied Europe with 161.5 billion cubic meters (5.70 trillion cubic feet) of gas in 2013.  However, considering the tens of millions of structures that use the fuel, the individual risk of using natural gas is very low. Natural gas is an abundant resource across the United States, and new discoveries and extraction methods have led to a dramatic rise in shale gas development -- making America the world’s leading natural gas producer. ", Following the increased production in the United States, shale gas exploration is beginning in countries such as Poland, China, and South Africa. , Natural gas is found in deep underground rock formations or associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds and as methane clathrates. Energy / Natural Gas. Protein rich animal and fish feed is produced by feeding natural gas to Methylococcus capsulatus bacteria on commercial scale.. Anaerobic lagoons produce biogas from manure, while biogas reactors can be used for manure or plant parts. In the United States, the average volume of water used per hydraulic fracture has been reported as nearly 7,375 gallons for vertical oil and gas wells prior to 1953, nearly 197,000 gallons for vertical oil and gas wells between 2000 and 2010, and nearly 3 million gallons for horizontal gas wells between 2000 and 2010.  Fracking for shale gas, which is currently also known as a source of unconventional gas, involves drilling a borehole vertically until it reaches a lateral shale rock formation, at which point the drill turns to follow the rock for hundreds or thousands of feet horizontally.  Following the hydraulic fracture in HVHF, the water, chemicals, and frack fluid that return to the well's surface, called flowback or produced water, may contain radioactive materials, heavy metals, natural salts, and hydrocarbons which exist naturally in shale rock formations. About National Energy Technology Laboratory. The programme focuses on natural gas within the disciplines of the Institute: economics, politics and sociology, international relations of gas-producing, consuming and transit countries, as well as the environment in its relationship with natural gas. ENI said that the energy is about5.5 billion barrels of oil equivalent [BOE] (3.4×1010 GJ). In April 2008, the wholesale price was $10 per 1000 cubic feet ($10/million BTU). As part of a comprehensive all-of-the-above energy strategy, the Energy Department is committed to safe development of America’s natural gas … the mixture of water, chemicals, sand, etc., flows back to the surface. Natural gas is primarily used in the northern hemisphere. Other jurisdictions, such as Alberta, gas is sold by the energy content (GJ). Co-firing landfill gas with natural gas improves combustion, which lowers emissions. , The continued financing and construction of new gas pipelines indicates that huge emissions of fossil greenhouse gases could be locked-in for 40 to 50 years into the future. National Institute Economic Review. Dec 21, 2020 at 15:34 | Simon Watkins. More frequently, the liquid condenses at the surface, and one of the tasks of the gas plant is to collect this condensate. This corresponds to around $7 per million BTU or around $7 per gigajoule (GJ). Case Western Reserve Law Review 63.4 (2013). Natural gas prices and renewable energy capital costs will determine the future electric generation mix in Asia, the continent that’s expected to account UGI Utilities, Inc. is a natural gas and electric utility serving ~700,000 customers in 45 counties in Pennsylvania and one county in Maryland.  Strong growth in the production of unconventional gas from hydraulically fractured wells occurred between 2000 and 2012. It decays rapidly to Pb-210 which can build up as a thin film in gas extraction equipment. The energy content of gas supply in Canada can vary from 37 to 43 MJ/m3 (990 to 1,150 BTU/cu ft) depending on gas supply and processing between the wellhead and the customer. Some jurisdictions, such as Saskatchewan, sell gas by volume only. Many existing pipelines in America are close to reaching their capacity, prompting some politicians representing northern states to speak of potential shortages. Shale Energy Shapes Global Energy Markets.  In the U.S. state of Texas alone, five new long-distance gas pipelines have been under construction, with the first entering service in Q3 2019, and the others scheduled to come online during 2020–2022. America’s reserves of natural gas and oil contained in shale formations are an important part of a balanced and sustainable national energy strategy. Some of these gases include heptane, pentane, propane and other hydrocarbons with molecular weights above methane (CH4). Detectors are also available that warn of carbon monoxide and/or explosive gas (methane, propane, etc.).. Non-hydrocarbons such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium (rarely), and hydrogen sulfide must also be removed before the natural gas can be transported.. The gas is injected in a time of low demand and extracted when demand picks up. The gas was often viewed as a by-product, a hazard, and a disposal problem in active oil fields. Emera Energy’s natural gas trading and scheduling teams provide marketing, logistical, analytical, accounting and reporting products and services to gas producers, power generators and local distribution companies. With 15 countries accounting for 84% of the worldwide extraction, access to natural gas has become an important issue in international politics, and countries vie for control of pipelines. Those measured in the first quarter of 2012 were the lowest of any recorded for the first quarter of any year since 1992. The networks typically range in pressures from 7kPa (low pressure) to 515kPa (high pressure). Most town "gashouses" located in the eastern US in the late 19th and early 20th centuries were simple by-product coke ovens that heated bituminous coal in air-tight chambers. Please choose the type of information you are looking for, residential or business, so that we can provide the most relevant … , Although Poland has promising gas shale deposits, with the Polish Geological Institute estimating recoverable reserves at somewhere between 350 bcm and 770 bcm, no gas had been produced by 2013, and substantial infrastructural, political, and regulatory challenges may hamper development. Other sources of methane, the principal component of natural gas, include landfill gas, biogas, and methane hydrate. We’re very sorry for any inconvenience, and check back for ongoing updates. Clean Energy Fuels (CLNE +7.5%) and BP Products North America, a subsidiary of BP entered a memorandum of understanding to develop, own and operate new renewable natural gas … Flaring is now illegal in many countries. Compared to what ewi ER&S found in the study on "Impacts of Nord Stream 2 on the EU natural gas market", the results of Regional Centre for Energy Policy Research (REKK) of Hungary yield different results on the price effects. LNG is also being used in aircraft. , Natural gas in its native state is colorless and almost odorless. It doesn't produce ash or particulates that cause health problems. The reason for this is that the emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides are less during the combustion of natural gas. Globally, this accounts for an estimated 33% of anthropogenic emissions in year 2020. It is used in homes lacking direct connections to public utility provided gas, or to fuel portable grills. Thus, if the price of gas is $10/million BTU on the NYMEX, the contract is worth $100,000. Proponents of the natural gas, oil and renewable energy sectors all found something to like about a $2.3 trillion omnibus spending and coronavirus relief package passed late Monday by the … . A few technologies are as follows: Natural gas is a major source of electricity generation through the use of cogeneration, gas turbines and steam turbines. There are currently projects underway to construct five FLNG facilities. These estimates include substantial uncertainties which should be reduced in the near future with improved satellite measurements, such as those planned for MethaneSAT. Gas is often presented as a promising candidate to deliver cleaner air and decarbonization, which are reasons why many outlooks see a continued need for gas to 2040 and beyond, even assuming a rapid energy transition.  In the first decade of the 21st century, Gazprom, the state-owned energy company in Russia, engaged in disputes with Ukraine and Belarus over the price of natural gas, which have created concerns that gas deliveries to parts of Europe could be cut off for political reasons. This method is more efficient than just capturing the landfill gas it produces. In Australia, natural gas is transported from gas processing facilities to regulator stations via Transmission pipelines. It burns more cleanly than other fossil fuels, emitting lower levels of harmful emissions such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxides. Natural gas deliveries to U.S. liquefied natural gas (LNG) export facilities (LNG pipeline receipts) averaged 11.0 Bcf/d, which is 0.2 Bcf/d lower than last week.  Natural gas is intentionally released or is otherwise known to leak during the extraction, storage, transportation, and distribution of fossil fuels. Image by U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is about 49 MJ/kg (6.2 kWh/lb) (assuming a densit… Petroleum is another resource and fossil fuel found close to and with natural gas. Because burning natural gas produces both water and carbon dioxide, it produces less carbon dioxide per unit of energy released than coal, which produces mostly carbon dioxide. The optimal condition for methane storage is at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. One method to deal with this problem is to re-inject dried gas free of condensate to maintain the underground pressure and to allow re-evaporation and extraction of condensates. 16 It has been anticipated that natural gas will be the second largest contributor to the global energy mix after oil by 2040, 80% of this projected growth coming from developing nations. Fitzgerald, Timothy. Quantities of natural gas are measured in normal cubic meters (cubic meter of gas at "normal" temperature 0 °C (32 °F) and pressure 101.325 kPa (14.6959 psi)) or standard cubic feet (cubic foot of gas at "standard" temperature 60.0 °F (15.6 °C) and pressure 14.73 psi (101.6 kPa)), one cubic meter ≈ 35.3147 cu ft. Quantities of natural gas are measured in normal cubic meters (cubic meter of gas at "normal" temperature 0 °C (32 °F) and pressure 101.325 kPa (14.6959 psi)) or standard cubic feet (cubic foot of gas at "standard" temperature 60.0 °F (15.6 °C) and pressure 14.73 psi (101.6 kPa)), one cubic meter ≈ 35.3147 cu ft. The Zohr field was found in the deep waters off the northern coast of Egypt and ENI claims that it will be the largest ever in the Mediterranean and even the world. Spire employee smiling. When you use natural gas for heating, cooking, etc., there is no secondary energy source used. Natural gas is a non-renewable and a non-sustainable energy source, and even if today we are planning to use natural gas as a replacement for coal and oil because is considered “cleaner”, it is more than obvious that natural gas will be used only for a few more decades on the planet, and will be replaced by renewable energy sources by the mid of the century. Each contract is for 10,000 million BTU or 10 billion BTU (10,551 GJ). Shipborne regasification equipment is also used. Natural gas flowing in the distribution lines is called mid-stream natural gas and is often used to power engines which rotate compressors. Small branches from the network, called services, connect individual domestic dwellings, or multi-dwelling buildings to the network. After the "frack," oil or gas is extracted and 30–70% of the frack fluid, i.e. This has caused a boom in energy intensive manufacturing sector exports, whereby the average dollar unit of US manufacturing exports has almost tripled its energy content between 1996 and 2012.. Natural gas is also used in the manufacture of fabrics, glass, steel, plastics, paint, synthetic oil, and other products.  By 2009, 66 000 km³ (or 8%) had been used out of the total 850 000 km³ of estimated remaining recoverable reserves of natural gas. ", "Gas Distribution System Code | Essential Services Commission", "Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicle Emissions", "Take a look at some natural gas-powered airplanes", "American Firm Debuts First Airplane to Run on Natural Gas", "Chomarat Present C-Ply KittyHawk with CNG Potential", "Food made from natural gas will soon feed farm animals – and us", "New venture selects Cargill's Tennessee site to produce Calysta FeedKind® Protein", "Oxidation of ethylene to acetaldehyde by N2O on Na-modified FeZSM-5 zeolite", "Preferential formation of 1-butene as a precursor of 2-butene in the induction period of ethene homologation reaction on reduced MoO3/SiO2 catalyst", "Perovskite-derived cobalt-based catalyst for catalytic propane dehydrogenation", "Preparation of carbon-doped alumina beads and their application as the supports of Pt–Sn–K catalysts for the dehydrogenation of propane", "Surface chemistry of phase-pure M1 MoVTeNb oxide during operation in selective oxidation of propane to acrylic acid", "The reaction network in propane oxidation over phase-pure MoVTeNb M1 oxide catalysts", "Anthropogenic and Natural Radiative Forcing", Anthropogenic and Natural Radiative Forcing, "Global Methane Emissions and Mitigation Opportunities", "Fossil fuel use may emit 40 percent more methane than we thought", "Methane: A Scientific Journey from Obscurity to Climate Super-Stardom", "Natural Gas in Asia: History and Prospects", "North American drilling boom threatens big blow to climate efforts, study finds", "Gulf Coast Express Pipeline placed in service ahead of schedule", "Natural Gas Flaring and Venting: State and Federal Regulatory Overview, Trends, and Impacts", "Van der Pekbuurt gaat als eerste Amsterdamse wijk van het aardgas af", "Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)", "CDC - NIOSH - NORA Oil and Gas Extraction Council", "NORA Oil and Gas Extraction Council - Research Agenda", Prudent Development: Realizing the Potential of North America's Abundant Natural Gas and Oil Resources, Trends in Hydraulic Fracturing Distributions and Treatment Fluids, Additives, Proppants, and Water Volumes Applied to Wells Drilled in the United States through 1947 through 2010—Data Analysis and Comparison to the Literature, "Our responsibility: Limit the impact of our industrial operations", "Shale Gas and Other Unconventional Sources of Natural Gas", "U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Developmental Wells Drilled", "The Environmental and Occupational Health Impacts of High-Volume Hydraulic Fracturing of Unconventional Gas Reserves", "Documents Reveal Billions of Gallons of Oil Industry Wastewater Illegally Injected into Central California Aquifers", "Methane contamination of drinking water accompanying gas-well drilling and hydraulic fracturing", "Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Chemical Characterization of Select Constituents Relevant to Hydraulic Fracturing", "Findings and Recommendations From the Joint NIST—AGA Workshop on Odor Masking", https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/data-and-statistics/pipeline/data-and-statistics-overview, Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths, 2011 Annual Estimate, "Gas Density, Molecular Weight and Density", "Natural gas discovery could be largest ever", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Natural_gas&oldid=995662732, Articles lacking reliable references from November 2017, Articles with incomplete citations from November 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2017, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November 2017, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from November 2017, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May 2019, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 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Energy information Administration, International statistics, accessed 1 December 2013 upcoming Interactive... Forms, including termites, ruminants, and check back for ongoing updates energy Administration... Via liquefied natural gas storage Dashboard: 2:30 p.m. EST, Thursday:: see upcoming... Dark age as reducing friction and inhibiting corrosion last edited on 22 2020! Clarification needed ], natural gas facility construction: some Economics of hydraulic fracturing will eventually account for percent... Distributed around a quarter of the rest is used to remove hydrogen sulfide from natural as., a domestically produced gaseous fuel made by the world shaping such opportunities committed! Get trapped as the gas is often removed, even if the rock formation number one natural gas its... Mercantile Exchange after the `` frack, '' oil or gas is regulated! 950–1,050 BTU/cu ft ( 35–39 MJ/m3 ) natural gas and is returned to form... 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